IRIDA Development Primer

This guide is for new developers to the IRIDA project to get a basic understanding of the layout of the project. Before getting started, new developers should read our Contributing page.

Document History

Languages and Libraries

IRIDA is a Java application developed using Java 11.

Spring framework

Documentation: https://docs.spring.io/spring-framework/docs/5.2.2.RELEASE/spring-framework-reference/

IRIDA uses the Spring Framework as the main backbone of the application. Spring is used to assist with many of the main functions of the application including configuration, dependency injection, MVC, REST API, Java persistance API management, and more.

For a better understanding of how Spring works, it’s recommended that IRIDA developers attend a Core Spring Training course https://pivotal.io/training/courses/core-spring-training.

Apache Maven

Documentation: http://maven.apache.org/guides/

IRIDA uses Apache Maven for dependency management and build automation. Maven allows developers to specify dependencies for a Java application and Maven will handle downloading all necessary required packages and ensuring they’re available for developers on the Java classpath. It also allows you to specify build lifecycles to automate packaging an application for distribution or execute code for development.

Maven settings and dependencies can generally be found in the pom.xml file in the IRIDA root directory.

Hibernate

Documentation:http://hibernate.org/orm/documentation/4.3/

Hibernate is used to map Java objects to database tables without the need for writing extra database code. IRIDA uses hibernate through the Java Persistence API abstraction.

Liquibase

Documentation: http://www.liquibase.org/documentation/index.html

Liquibase is used to manage IRIDA’s relational database change management. Any time a change is made to IRIDA’s production database schema, Liquibase is used to perform the change. See the Database Updates section for more.

Galaxy

Documentation: https://docs.galaxyproject.org/en/master/index.html

Galaxy is used as IRIDA’s analysis workflow engine. Analysis pipelines must be developed as Galaxy pipelines to integrate with IRIDA’s workflow system. See the Galaxy Setup documentation for Galaxy installation and the Tool Development documentation for building tools for IRDIA.

Other important libraries

Development platform

The development platform used by most IRIDA developers is the Eclipse IDE.

The following plugins are recommended:

The following code formatting file should be imported into Eclipse for consistency between developers: IRIDA eclipse code format

Quick start development requirements

An (incomplete) set of instructions for getting the IRIDA service layer and web front up and running for development on your Linux machine. To include Galaxy and all the pipeline requirements, see the main IRIDA documentation.

cd irida/lib/
./install-libs.sh
# Setup databases example
# These steps may differ depending on your installation

# log into mysql as root
sudo mysql -u root
# create databases
create database irida_test;
create database irida_integration_test;

# give test user access
grant all privileges on irida_test.* to 'test'@'localhost' identified by 'test';
grant all privileges on irida_integration_test.* to 'test'@'localhost' identified by 'test';

# exit
quit
# check that test user has access
mysql -u test -p irida_test

From here you should be able to run the IRIDA service layer, REST API, and web UI using Tomcat.

Running and building IRIDA

Running a development server

An IRIDA development server can be run with the run.sh script available in the project root directory. The script has one option --create-db. Using this option will automatically drop and recreate the database using test data. A newly created development database will contain the profile admin, with password password1, that can be used to log in to IRIDA.

Running the run.sh without arguments script is equivalent to running:

mvn clean spring-boot:run -Dspring.profiles.active=dev

Any arguments added after run.sh will be proxied to the mvn ... command.

Spring profiles

Spring allows us to set profiles in the application that can be used to set up certain services for running in different environments.

Basic profiles
Advanced profiles

The advanced profiles allow you to configure your server to run specific components of the IRIDA application. The different profiles enable specific scheduled tasks which are used to run many of IRIDA’s analysis, processing, or data transfer tools. For more information on setting up an IRIDA server to run in multi-server mode, see the installation documentation.

Testing profiles

When running IRIDA from the command line, a profile can be set by adding the following parameter:

-Dspring.profiles.active=YOURPROFILE

Running IRIDA tests locally

While GitHub Actions runs all IRIDA’s testing on every pull request, it is often useful to run IRIDA’s test suite locally for debugging or development. IRIDA’s test suite can be run with Maven using the test and verify goals.

See the IRIDA tests section for more on how IRIDA’s tests are developed.

Unit tests

IRIDA’s unit tests can be run with the following command:

mvn clean test

Maven will download all required dependencies and run the full suite of unit tests. This will take a couple minutes and a report stating what tests passed and failed will be presented.

Integration tests

IRIDA has 5 integration test profiles which splits the integration test suite into functional groups. This allows GitHub Actions to run the tests in parallel, and local test executions to only run the required portion of the test suite. The 5 profiles are the following:

See the <profiles> section of the pom.xml file to see how the profiles are defined.

As the integration tests simulate a running IRIDA installation, in order to run any integration test the requirements needed to run a production IRIDA server must be installed on your development machine. The test profiles can each by run directly with mvn verify, but additional setup may be required for the tests to work properly. To perform this setup and run all the tests, the run-tests.sh script can be used. To run a test profile with run-tests.sh please run the following:

./run-tests.sh <TEST PROFILE>

This will clean and setup an empty database for IRIDA on the local machine named irida_integration_test. This will also, for the Galaxy test profile, start up a Galaxy IRIDA testing Docker image running on http://localhost:48889 and destroy this Docker image afterwards (you can skip destroying the Docker image by passing --no-kill-docker to this script). If you wish to use a different database than the default irida_integration_test, you may pass the name of the database with the -d flag:

./run-tests.sh -d <DATABASE> <TEST PROFILE>

This assumes that the user test has been given all permissions to <DATABASE> (e.g., in SQL grant all privileges on <DATABASE>.* to 'test'@'localhost';).

As an example of how to run the IRIDA integration tests:

./run-tests.sh galaxy_testing

This will:

  1. Clean/re-build the IRIDA database on irida_integration_test (use -d to override).
  2. Remove any previous Docker images from previous tests (named irida-galaxy-test).
  3. Start up a new Docker image with Galaxy running on http://localhost:48889.
  4. Run IRIDA galaxy_testing integration test profile.
  5. Remove Docker image on http://localhost:48889.

Additional Maven parameters can be passed to run-tests.sh. In particular, individual test classes can be run using -Dit.test=ca.corefacilty.bioinformatics.irida.TheTestClass. For example:

./run-tests.sh rest_testing -Dit.test=ca.corefacility.bioinformatics.irida.web.controller.test.integration.analysis.RESTAnalysisSubmissionControllerIT

Building IRIDA for release

Run the following:

mvn clean package -DskipTests

This will create the .war and .zip files for IRIDA release under the target/ directory.

Building IRIDA documentation

IRIDA documentation can be found in the https://github.com/phac-nml/irida-docs GitHub project. IRIDA’s documentation is built using Jekyll and GitHub Pages. Jekyll allows us to write documentation in Markdown format and it will convert the pages to HTML. We can use Jekyll both for viewing the documentation locally and for publishing to GitHub Pages. The current documentation can be found at https://phac-nml.github.io/irida-docs.

Testing IRIDA documentation locally

To view the documentation locally or make changes, you can checkout the above GitHub project and make changes. To run the server locally you can run Jekyll to generate the pages.

First cd into the docs/ directory and run the following command:

bundle exec jekyll serve

Note that you must have Ruby and Jekyll installed. See the documentation README.md for info on installing these tools.

This command will read the _config.yml file in the directory for configuration settings, then serve the built documentation at http://localhost:4000/irida-docs/. As you make changes to documentation files it will automatically regenerate the documentation and reload its webserver.

Updating IRIDA documentation for release

The IRIDA documentation is automatically published from the current state of the master branch of the https://github.com/phac-nml/irida-documentation repository. To update the docs be sure you have a recent copy of the irida-documentation repository checked out and on the development branch. The build-docs.py script has been built to assist with updating the docs repository. Below are the steps you should perform to publish a new version of the IRIDA documentation.

  1. Run the build-docs.py script from the root of the irida repository. You must provide it with the path to your irida-documentation/docs folder:
    ./build-docs.py path/to/irida-documentation/docs
    

    This will compile the Java documentation into the documentation directory, then update the documentation in irida-documentation/docs.

  2. Go to your irida-documentation folder. Create a new branch and commit your changes.
  3. Create a new PR and have another IRIDA developer review the changes. There will be many changes in the docs/developer/apidocs directory that were automatically generated. These should not require manual review.
  4. Once changes are ready in the development branch, they must be merged into master for release. Manually update the master branch by merging development. You should also create a tag for the IRIDA release version.
    git checkout development # checkout the development branch
    git pull # ensure the branch is up to date
    git checkout master # checkout the master branch
    git pull # ensure the branch is up to date
    git merge development # merge development into the master branch
    git tag <the current IRIDA version> # tag the current release for easy retrieval of previous versions
    git push origin master # push the new code to GitHub
    git push --tags # push the newly created tag
    

Shortly after pushing the new changes to GitHub, the updated pages should be reflected on the GitHub Pages site.

IRIDA Codebase

IRIDA is organized as a fairly classic Java web application. All main source can be found in the src/main/ path. Test code will be in src/test/

Java classpath

All files are found under the ca.corefacility.bioinformatics.irida package root.

IRIDA Security

IRIDA uses Spring Security extensively to control access and authentication in the platform. The majority of the security resides at the service layer of the application, but some security functions can be found elsewhere in the codebase.

Method security is generally handled by adding Spring security annotations to methods. These annotations can have a number of different forms.

Role based security

The @PreAuthorize annotation is used for the majority of security functions. This annotation outlines the conditions which must be met in order for a user to run a given method. If the user does not meet the conditions, an AccessDeniedException will be thrown.

The simplest case for this annotation uses the hasRole('ROLE') format. In this case it is checking whether the logged in user has a given system role. For example the following block will check if the logged in user is an admin:

@PreAuthorize("hasRole('ROLE_ADMIN')")
public void doStuff(){}

Custom permission classes

In cases where role-based security isn’t enough, Spring Security allows us to write custom permissions classes to test whether a user can perform a function. For most cases in IRIDA, this is checking whether a user has access to a given object in the database (Project, Sample, SequencingObject, etc.) to perform a given action (read, update, delete, etc.). These custom permission classes can be found in the ca.corefacility.bioinformatics.irida.security.permissions classpath of the project. Permissions must extend the BasePermission class and be annotated as a @Component to be wired into the IRIDA security layer. See ReadProjectPermission for an example.

The meat of the permission lies in the public boolean customPermissionAllowed(final Authentication authentication, final DOMAIN_OBJECT p) method. This method uses the logged in user’s authentication and a reference to the object they’re trying to access to try to determine if they should be able to perform the action. Since the permission class is a Spring @Component it can wire in any repository layer elements needed to perform the test. Once the customPermissionAllowed method determines if a user can perform the action, it returns true/false and the action will be approved or denied as such.

The second required method is public String getPermissionProvided(). This method provides the security system a name for the permission. This name will be used in the @PreAuthorize or @PostFilter annotations using Spring Expression Language.

When a permission class implements both of these methods, it can be used in Spring security annotations. For example if we had the permission ReadProjectPermission named canReadProject, we could use it on a method in the following fashion:

@PreAuthorize("hasPermission(#project, 'canReadProject')")
public void doStuff(Project project){}

This block does the following:

  1. Loads the ReadProjectPermission class based on the canReadProject name
  2. Passes the project parameter into the customPermissionAllowed method of the permission class as it’s identified by the #project parameter in the annotation.
  3. Executes the customPermissionAllowed method to determine if the logged in user has access to do the requested action.
  4. If the user should have access, the method runs as normal. If not, AccessDeniedException is thrown.

In addition to passing in domain objects, the permission classes are able to read objects by their ID. For example if we have the following block:

@PreAuthorize("hasPermission(#projectId, 'canReadProject')")
public void doStuff(Long projectId){}

Passing the projectId parameter to the annotation will read a Project from the database before passing to the customPermissionAllowed method.

These permission classes can also be used with the @PostFilter annotation. This annotation runs after the method completes to see if the user has access to the output of the method. This is generally used for methods returning collections of objects. For example with the following block:

@PostFilter("hasPermission(filterObject, 'canReadProject')")
public List<Project> doStuff(){}

This code will ensure the logged in user can read each of the Projects being returned. Any object they should not have access to will be pruned from the list.

Building new features

GitHub Issues

Any time a request comes in from a user for a new feature, or a bug is found, an issue should be created on GitHub. The IRIDA project uses GitHub’s issues list as it’s main project tracking system. The issue should be documented as fully as possible with the following:

Once an issue is completed it should be referenced in a pull request in GitHub so the reviewer can know the full scope of the issue.

Informing users of changes

When adding new features we have a couple places we need to inform our users. First is the CHANGELOG.md file found in the root of the project. If you’ve added a feature, fixed a bug, or made any changes worthwhile of telling IRIDA users, other IRIDA developers, or administrators they should be mentioned here. Next is the UPGRADING.md guide. This file is used to inform IRIDA system admins what steps need to be taken when upgrading from one version of IRIDA to another. For example if you add anything to a configuration file, if there are changes which require an upgrade to the database, a workflow, or any dependencies, it should be mentioned here.

IRIDA tests

IRIDA uses JUnit for the majority of its testing. To ensure the IRIDA codebase is performing as expected, when developing new features you should also write tests for the newly developed code.

IRIDA has 2 main types of tests:

Unit tests

IRIDA unit tests are written entirely with JUnit and run with Maven Surefire. Any classes or methods performing any sort of business logic should have unit tests written for them. In general all test requirements should be mocked with Mockito, and tests should be written for expected behaviour, failure cases, and edge cases. To mark a class as a unit test, the java file must be named with a *Test.java suffix. For examples of existing IRIDA unit tests, see any classes under src/test/java class path ca.corefacility.bioinformatics.irida.service.impl.unit.

Integration tests

IRIDA’s integration tests are again developed using JUnit and run with Maven Failsafe. In addition to the unit tests described above, IRIDA’s integration tests verify that all components of the application work correctly together to produce the intended result. Integration tests are generally written using the SpringJUnit4ClassRunner class which allows us to use a Spring application context and @Autowired to wire in test dependencies. Mocking generally should not be used for dependencies in any integration tests.

As integration tests rely on the full application stack, database entries must be created at the beginning of each test. To do this IRIDA uses the DBUnit library to load test data into the database prior to every test, and to clear the database after the test is completed. Test database files are generally created for each test class, but some are reused between test classes. DBUnit test files are written in an easy XML format.

Tests for different parts of the application may use additional libraries such as:

Refer to similar tests for examples of writing tests for the UI, REST API, etc.

To mark a class as a unit test, the java file must be named with a *IT.java suffix. For examples of existing basic IRIDA integration tests, see classes under src/test/java class path ca.corefacility.bioinformatics.irida.service.impl.integration.

Database Updates

While in development we use Hibernate to manage our database changes, in production we use Liquibase.

Liquibase allows you to create changesets for an application’s database in incremental, database agnostic XML files. In practice IRIDA requires MariaDB or MySQL, but it’s still worthwhile to use a tool to properly manage the updates. Liquibase ensures that all changes to the database are performed in the correct order, and manages this by keeping track of a hashcode of the last applied changeset. When IRIDA is started, liquibase runs first to check if there are new changesets to be applied, and also that the current state of the database is in the format that IRIDA will be expecting.

When we’re doing development, Liquibase is generally not used. Instead we generally rely on Hibernate’s HBM2DDL module which allows us to directly make changes to the model classes and those changes will be reflected into the database. This can be enabled by running IRIDA in the dev Spring profile. Additionally when running in the dev profile example data from src/main/resounrces/ca/corefacility/bioinformatics/irida/sql will be loaded into the database for test purpose. Since HBM2DDL is not to be used in production environments, before creating a pull request you should add any changes that are made to the database to a new changeset XML file and test that the database is correctly built in the prod Spring profile. If you’ve modified any tables in the database it’s also worth testing whether those changes can be properly migrated from an existing production database. To do this you should take a dump of a production IRIDA database, load the dump up on your development machine, and run a server in prod profile to ensure the database upgrades correctly.

You can find the existing Liquibase changeset files in /src/manin/resounces/ca/corefacility/bioinformatics/irida/database/changesets.

Sometimes database changes are too complex to be able to use Liquibase XML files. Conveniently Liquibase also allows you to apply change sets using Java code. This mode is not recommended to use very often as you don’t get some of the same change management features, but it’s useful when you have a difficult migration. If you need to use a change set written in Java, place it under the ca.corefacility.bioinformatics.irida.database.changesets package.

Documentation

IRIDA has a number of sources of documentation. For any user-facing changes, documentation should be added to the appropriate section of the user documentation under the doc/ directory with instructions on how to use the new feature.

Developer documentation is also necessary for all Java classes, methods, code blocks, JavaScript, and any other code written for IRIDA. In the Java portion of the IRIDA codebase, all methods and classes must have associated Javadoc. To generate a Javadoc template for a method or class in Eclipse, type /** and press <Enter>. A method/class description, all parameters, and return value should be documented.

Version control

The IRIDA project uses Git and GitHub for version control purposes. External collaborators are welcomed to develop new features and should submit pull requests on IRIDA’s GitHub page. See the Contributing guide for more information on contributing to IRIDA.

Branch structure

IRIDA’s branch structure is loosely based on the GitFlow branch model. This model allows the team to develop multiple features in parallel without contaminating the main development branch, keeping pull requests sane, and allows for stable and patchable releases.

Branches

Release tags & versioning scheme

IRIDA uses a CalVer style versioning scheme. This means the release version number is based on the year and month that it was released. The scheme used is YY.0M.minor. First segment is last 2 digits of the year, 2nd is 2 digit month, and 3rd is the number of bugfix release (optional). For example a major release in January 2019 would be 19.01. If a bugfix release was performed for that version, it would be 19.01.1.

Whenever code is merged into master, a release should be created. To mark the release the person merging the code should create a git tag at the point of the merge.

git tag YY.MM.minor

Don’t forget to push the tag when you’re finished.

git push --tags

Once the tag has been pushed, the tag should have been automatically created on IRIDA’s GitHub site at https://github.com/phac-nml/irida/releases. This release will be created as a tag, but will not be a full release until release notes and release files are uploaded to GitHub. To do this, click Edit next to the new tag, enter the details from the CHANGELOG.md file for this release, and upload the .war and .zip files for this release.

Example workflow:

Git workflow

Pull requests

Code is not to be merged into the development or master branches by the developer who wrote the code. Instead a merge request should be made on GitHub and assigned to another developer on the project. The reviewer should look over the code for issues, and anything that needs to be fixed should be mentioned in a comment in the merge request. Once an issue has been fixed, the developer should push the changes to the merge request branch and mention the commit id in the comment so the reviewer can track the changes.

The reviewer of a merge request should ensure the following:

If a merge request is a fix for an issue that is being tracked in GitHub, the developer should mention the issue number in the merge request with the format Fixes #1234 so that the merge request will be linked to the issue and it will be automatically closed once the merge is complete.

When the reviewer is satisfied with the state of the branch to be merged, they should merge it into the development branch in GitHub to close the request.